Types of Specialists & Doctors and What They Treat

Ever wondered what all the jargon in reference to different doctors means? The medical field, like in any other industry is made up of doctors specializing in different areas of the medical field. This article will go over what each doctor does. This will allow you to identify the kind of doctor you need to see to treat your ailment.

For those planning to venture into the medical field, you'll be able to identify the area for which you would like to study and specialize in.

Table: Types of Doctors

General Medical Experts

Doctor Name

Job Contents

General physician/ family practitioner

A doctor who offers treatment for mild conditions.

Internal medical doctor

Deals in Adult medicine, treatment and prevention of adult diseases.

An emergency doctor

On call 24/7 and specializes with emergency room practice.


Cares for hospitalized patients.

Palliative care specialist

Reduces the suffering and improves the life of patients in pain

General pediatricians

Treats general medical conditions in infant, adolescents and children.

Intensive care specialist

Treats life threatening conditions in need of invasive monitoring and organ support


Treats geriatrics (old people) related health complications


Administers and studies anesthesia for surgical procedures


Performs surgeries that are related to different areas of medicine

Doctors Treating Heart Problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents


Diagnoses and treats conditions related to the heart and vessels of the blood

Pediatric cardiologist

Treats and diagnoses heart complication in infants.

Vascular medical specialist

Offers treatment for vascular diseases related to arteries, lymphatic system and veins

Doctors Treating Hormone/Gland Problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents

Hormone doctor/endocrinologist

Diagnoses and treats endocrine system and glands disorders and imbalances

Pediatric endocrinologist

Treats hormone and gland problems in infants, children and adolescents

Doctors Treating Stomach/Liver/Bowel/Colon/Kidney Problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents


Treats, diagnoses and studies health issues related to the urinary tract, kidney and urinary system


Treats and diagnoses medical conditions related to the stomach functions


Treats and diagnosis diseases related to the liver


Treats kidney diseases and ailments

Rectal/ Colon surgeon

Undertakes surgical procedures to correct rectal, colon and anal disorders

Doctors Treating Reproduction/Sex Problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents


Treats and diagnoses medical issues with the male reproductive system


Treats and diagnoses conditions in the reproductive system of females

Obstetrician/ Gynecologist

Childbirth expert, specializes in C-section, ovarian tumors removal and PAP smears

Sexual medicine practitioner

Studies, treats and diagnoses disorders related to sex

Fertility specialist

Treats problems with infertility menopause sexual disorders and hormonal imbalance

Doctors Treating Immunity/Allergy Problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents


Expert in allergic reactions and treatment of immune system disorders


Specializes in the study and treatment of conditions related to the immune system

Doctors Treating Cancer

Doctor Name

Job Contents

Medical oncologist

Oversees the general care of cancer patients. Coordinates treatment with the other specialists

Radiation oncologist

Specializes in treating cancer using radiation

Surgical oncologist

Deals with administering surgical procedures to treat cancer. Uses biopsy to diagnose cancer. Removes tumors and cancerous tissues

Pediatric oncologist

Treats cancer in children

Doctors Treating Lungs and Blood Problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents


Treats and diagnoses lung medical condition. Cares for ICU patients with ventilator support needs


Treats, diagnoses and studies conditions related to the blood

Doctors Treating Brain/Nervous System Problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents


Specializes in the treatment of diseases affecting the nervous system and the brain


Diagnoses, studies ad treats medical conditions affecting the brain such as strokes, seizures and Alzheimer's

Doctors Treating Joints/Bones/Muscle problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents


Repairs and replaces broken bones. Treats bone, tendons and joint problems

Orthopedic surgeon

Offers surgical treatment for joint, muscle and bones complications


Specializes in the treatment of vasculitis, rheumatism and autoimmune disorders.


Specializes in treatment of diseases and disorders affecting the ankle and foot

Doctors Treating Nose/Ears/Throat/Dental/Eyes/Skin Problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents


Specializes in hearing aids treatment

Otolaryngologist/ENT specialist

Specializes in ear, throat and nose medical ailments


Specializes in treating eye vision, and performing simple eye surgeries


Treats dental problems related to teeth supporting structures


Specializes in skin and skin structure conditions

Doctors Treating Psychological Problems

Doctor Name

Job Contents

General psychiatrist

Specializes in the study, treatment and diagnosis of mental disorder and behavioral problems.


Specializes in mental and brain health

Geriatric psychiatrist

Deals with mental complications in elderly individuals

Forensic psychiatrist

Studies correlation between psychology and crime

Other Types of Doctors

Doctor Name

Job Contents


Studies biology and pathology of parasites, as well as parasitic diseases.


Studies the medical symptoms and reports of patients to diagnose the disease.


Studies the causes and patterns of diseases in a population or area, and make efforts to prevent epidemics/pandemics from happening again.

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